Tag Archives: Book review

The Biology of Extremes: Superlative by Matthew D. LaPlante

Superlative: The Biology of Extremes by Matthew D. LaPlante is not just about extremes, but about all the things in between that make the extremes extreme. LaPlante looks at size, speed, age, intelligence. For all the various subtopics that come up in such an exploration, LaPlante does a great job of bringing in the latest research. Mostly, this is a collection of interesting evolutionary and biological stories that happen to involve tiny things, giant things, old things, fast things, or things that are in some other way — superlative.

Go for a swim with a ghost shark, the slowest-evolving creature known to humankind, which is teaching us new ways to think about immunity. Get to know the axolotl, which has the longest-known genome and may hold the secret to cellular regeneration. Learn about Monorhaphis chuni, the oldest discovered animal, which is providing insights into the connection between our terrestrial and aquatic worlds.

I’m not endorsing every idea or story in this book. One can not write a book about adaptations and have any evolutionary biologist worth their salt not bump on things. But the author does an honest and straightforward job of representing the research, and you’ll learn quite a bit that is new, see new perspectives on things you’ve considered in the past, and you’ll enjoy LaPlante’s writing.

I will probably be recommending this volume as a holiday gift for the Uncle who has everything or the teenager who likes natural history. Teachers of wildlife biology, evolution, or related topics will be able to mine this volume for stories. The use of footnotes is notable.* I recommend Superlative


  • … and well done.

Food Or War by Julian Cribb: Excellent new book

For many years, scientists who studied biology, behavior, and ecology (under the name of various disciplines) looked at resources, including and especially food, as a major determinant of social structure in social animals, herd structure in herd animals, and so on. Then, there was a revolution and it quickly became apparent that sex, not food, underlies everything and is the ultimate explanation for the variation we see in nature. That pair of dimes lasted for a while, then the other penny dropped and thanks to key research done by a handful of people (including me, in relation to human evolution), it became apparent that there was a third significant factor, that ultimately trumped sex as an organizing force. Food.

I hate it when the author of a book about something historical (history = written records) or even contemporary requires a paleolithic or prehistoric context. If I had a dime for every first chapter I’ve seen where a perfectly expert expert drones ignorantly on about how their book is a follow on of something that started in Olduvai Gorge and side stepped the Neanderthals and all that, I’d have several dollars. Praise the gods that Julian Cribb, in his new book Food or War, only does that for a few paragraphs and does it well!

This book is important, impressive, and a must read.

Food has organized society, politics, war, settlement, colonialism, and the economy more than any single factor, and food has been revolutionized by those things as well. As a simple way to understand this, consider any particular traditional food ask yourself, “would this even be possible were it not for the ability to sail up wind in a ship?” The answer, once you get to it, will almost always be no. Plantains, grass-based cereal crops, maize, potatoes, cassava, a range of vegetables such as tomatoes and various gourds and squash, green leafy things, all of it, are now available to grow in each and every habitat they can be grown in, not just the habitats that happen to be in the geographical region they were domesticated in. And, importantly, this transition happened centuries ago, depending on where one looks. Much of it happened before missionaries or explorers accounts even have a chance to flesh out the details of native live, and certainly long before anthropologists or other professional observers arrived on the scene.

Food or War is the book you must read now to understand the complex historical dynamics behind what you are eating.

The book covers food up to the present, and all the major considerations related to it. Drought, loss of land, climate change, migration, foodies, permaculture, organic farming, and on and on are all addressed in this well written scholarly but for everyone volume. And Cribb makes a stab at projecting into the future, and suggesting what we may consider doing about our food related problems.

This is not a happy book. A book dedicated to Paul Ehrlich is not going to be a happy book. It is a black book with blood red writing and a skull and crossbones on the cover. The title puts an or between the words food and war. This is not the read you need to get you away from the awful discourse polluting our psyches at this moment in history. But it is the book you need to read in order to understand and contextualize many of our policy related problems in the here and now. Plus, it is simply very well written, very well researched, and you will learn things. Many things.

Here’s the TOC:

  1. Food and conflict
  2. War and hunger
  3. The strategic importance of food, land and water
  4. Is ‘agriculture’ sustainable?
  5. Hotspots for food conflict in the twenty-first century
  6. Food as an existential risk
  7. Food for peace
  8. Urban dreams and nightmares
  9. The future of food
  10. Conclusion: key recommendations of this book.

I strongly recommend this book. It is available for pr-order, coming out in September.

Our Changing Earth: New Climate Change Book

Our Changing Earth: Why Climate Change Matters to Young People by Arjun Marwaha is a book for young people, about why climate change should matter to young people, and it is written by an actual young person! Marwaha is a high school junior from California, decorated for his excellent essay writing, who has a passion for helping people understand climate change. The book does that well.

Between the years 2030 and 2050, a quarter of a million people per year will lose their lives to climate change. Blazing temperatures and catastrophic weather are well-known climate change effects, but these simply do not compare with health-related effects: the transmission of water-borne and vector-borne disease. Arjun Marwaha, a high schooler with a passion for STEM, has committed himself to foster awareness for climate change among the youth of today. In Our Changing Earth, he delves into how our planet will be altered in response to climate change, and why this is relevant particularly to young people. Looking forward, Arjun hopes to promote awareness among all humans for the greatest threat to humanity in the 21st century and beyond: climate change.

The author covers sea level rise, increase heat, disease, ocean acidification, dividing the outcomes of anthropogenic climate change into earth-based effects and human health effects. Over eighty sources are used and referenced, and the book includes a glossary of terms divided out by chapter. (I might have put those term definitions in boxes within the chapters, but it is a matter of taste).

Perfect for your high school age child who may benefit from seeing the point of view of another like-minded, like-aged person. Good for anyone who wants to know more about climate change’s effects and causes. I enjoyed, in an apocalyptic depressing sort of way of course, Our Changing Earth: Why Climate Change Matters to Young People.

Best Children’s Book on Human Evolution

Aside from evolutionary theory itself, the teaching of Human evolution involves physiology and reproductive biology, behavioral biology, genetics, and the fossil record itself with details of a concomitant history.

And finally, there is a children’s book that addresses the latter, in amazing detail!

There are very few good (or even bad) children’s books about evolution, and far fewer about human evolution. And when a children’s book touches on human evolution, it is usually just about Neanderthals.

When We Became Humans: The Story of Our Evolution by Michael Bright with illustrations by Hannah Bailey is a very good book on human evolution. The book is over 60 pages long in large format, and my copy is cloth bound. The production quality of the book is outstanding. (That is generally the case with this publisher.)

I am am impressed with this title, and I strongly recommend it for anyone looking for a book for a kid of a certain age to read, or a younger kid to get read to.

What is that certain age? I’m thinking 10 plus or minus 2, depending on the kid. The publishers say 8-11. So somewhere around there. A 10 year old who absorbs the material in this book will do OK on an intro college human evolution midterm that focuses on the fossil and archaeological record. Or at least, the child will be able to effectively challenge the professor in a grade grubbing situation.

When We Became Humans: The Story of Our Evolution covers primate evolution, key moments in hominin history, bipedalism, early tools, brain evolution, the origin of fire (nice to see my research embodied as fact in an actual children’s book!), Homo erectus and Neanderthals, modern humans, foragers, early agriculture, holicene history, language, art, early burial, and other things such as hobbits.

There are only four places where I would take issue with the facts as presented here. The root hypothesis for the human-chimp split is left out, I would discuss early tools differently, the author embraces the scavenging hypothesis too kindly, and the great global diversity and overall craziness of the agricultural transition is glossed in favor (mostly) of the old Fertile Crescent story, which is not wrong, just limited. Given that this book presnets roughly 165 facts or perspectives, me disagreeing with this small number is rather remarkable.

The art is great, the typefaces well chosen, the layout is artful and foregrounds the aforementioned are and the facts.

You can preorder this book now; it will be out mid July.

Make Your Own Pixel Art

First, what is “pixel art?”

Is that just art that is rendered in raster? Not exactly. Pixel art is the sort of art you draw for digital cartoons or similar things. The skills and tools of making pixel art would apply to designing icons or logos used in electronic products as well.

To demonstrate what pixel art is, I’m including a few examples from the newly published Make Your Own Pixel Art: Create Graphics for Games, Animations, and More! by Jennifer Dawe and Matthew Humphries.

This book will give you an introduction to the tricks of the trade of making technologically simply but artistically potent drawings, including ways to animate them.

The non-OpenSource (boo) software that is used throughout the book is not expensive and is easy to use, and yes, OpenSource alternatives are suggested and briefly discussed. The book relies on Aseprite and Pro Motion, with GraphcsGale (Windows only, boo) being a free alternative.

Techniques covered include shading, texture, proper use of color, motion and animation, and making things look sentient. Apparently, you can make money doing this sort of thing! This book is probably a good investment, at the very least to see if you have the talent and interest.

Author Jennifer Dawe is an animator and character designer who has been a professional pixel artist for the past 15 years. Author Matthew Humphries is Senior Editor at PCMag.com and a professional game designer.

How to do science with a computer: workflow tools and OpenSource philosophy

I have two excellent things on my desk, a Linux Journal article by Andy Wills, and a newly published book by Stefano Allesina and Madlen Wilmes.

They are:

Computing Skills for Biologists: A Toolbox by Stefano Allesina and Madlen Wilmes, Princeton University Press.

Open Science, Open Source, and R, by Andy Wills, Linux Journal

Why OpenSource?

OpenSource science means, among other things, using OpenSource software to do the science. For some aspects of software this is not important. It does not matter too much if a science lab uses Microsoft Word or if they use LibreOffice Write.

However, since it does matter if you use LibreOffice Calc as your spreadsheet, as long as you are eschewing proprietary spreadsheets, you might as well use the OpenSource office package LibreOffice or equivalent, and then use the OpenSource presentation software, word processor, and spreadsheet.

OpenSource programs like Calc, R (a stats package), and OpenSource friendly software development tools like Python and the GPL C Compilers, etc. do matter. Why? Because your science involves calculating things, and software is a magic calculating box. You might be doing actual calculations, or production of graphics, or management of data, or whatever. All of the software that does this stuff is on the surface a black box, and just using it does not give you access to what is happening under the hood.

But, if you use OpenSoucre software, you have both direct and indirect access to the actual technologies that are key to your science project. You can see exactly how the numbers are calculated or the graphic created, if you want to. It might not be easy, but at least you don’t have to worry about the first hurdle in looking under the hood that happens with commercial software: they won’t let you do it.

Direct access to the inner workings of the software you use comes in the form of actually getting involved in the software development and maintenance. For most people, this is not something you are going to do in your scientific endeavor, but you could get involved with some help from a friend or colleague. For example, if you are at a University, there is a good chance that somewhere in your university system there is a computer department that has an involvement in OpenSource software development. See what they are up to, find out what they know about the software you are using. Who knows, maybe you can get a special feature included in your favorite graphics package by helping your new found computer friends cop an internal University grant! You might be surprised as to what is out there, as well as what is in there.

In any event, it is explicitly easy to get involved in OpenSource software projects because they are designed that way. Or, usually are and always should be.

The indirect benefit comes from the simple fact that these projects are OpenSource. Let me give you an example form the non scientific world. (it is a made up example, but it could reflect reality and is highly instructive.)

Say there is an operating system or major piece of software competing in a field of other similar products. Say there is a widely used benchmark standard that compares the applications and ranks them. Some of the different products load up faster than others, and use less RAM. That leaves both time (for you) and RAM (for other applications) that you might value a great deal. All else being equal, pick the software that loads faster in less space, right?

Now imagine a group of trollish deviants meeting in a smoky back room of the evile corporation that makes one of these products. They have discovered that if they leave a dozen key features that all the competitors use out of the loading process, so they load later, they can get a better benchmark. Without those standard components running, the software will load fast and be relatively small. It happens to be the case, however, that once all the features are loaded, this particular product is the slowest of them all, and takes up the most RAM. Also, the process of holding back functionality until it is needed is annoying to the user and sometimes causes memory conflicts, causing crashes.

In one version of this scenario, the concept of selling more of the product by using this performance tilting trick is considered a good idea, and someone might even get a promotion for thinking of it. That would be something that could potentially happen in the world of proprietary software.

In a different version of this scenario the idea gets about as far as the water cooler before it is taken down by a heavy tape dispenser to the head and kicked to death. That would be what would certainly happen in the OpenSource world.

So, go OpenSource! And, read the paper from Linux Journal, which by the way has been producing some great articles lately, on this topic.

The Scientists Workflow and Software

You collect and manage data. You write code to process or analyze data. You use statistical tools to turn data into analytically meaningful numbers. You make graphs and charts. You write stuff and integrate the writing with the pretty pictures, and produce a final product.

The first thing you need to understand if you are developing or enhancing the computer side of your scientific endevour is that you need the basic GNU tools and command line access that comes automatically if you use Linux. You can get the same stuff with a few extra steps if you use Windows. The Apple Mac system is in between with the command line tools already built in, but not quite as in your face available.

You may need to have an understanding of Regular Expressions, and how to use them on the command line (using sed or awk, perhaps) and in programming, perhaps in python.

You will likely want to master the R environment because a) it is cool and powerful and b) a lot of your colleagues use R so you will want to have enough under your belt to share code and data now and then. You will likely want to master Python, which is becoming the default scientific programming language. It is probably true that anything you can do in R you can do in Python using the available tools, but it is also true that the most basic statistical stuff you might be doing is easier in R than Python since R is set up for it. The two systems are relatively easy to use and very powerful, so there is no reason to not have both in your toolbox. If you don’t chose the Python route, you may want to supplement R with gnu plotting tools.

You will need some sort of relational database setup in your lab, some kind of OpenSource SQL lanaguge based system.

You will have to decide on your own if you are into LaTex. If you have no idea what I’m talking about, don’t worry, you don’t need to know. If you do know what I’m talking about, you probably have the need to typeset math inside your publications.

Finally, and of utmost importance, you should be willing to spend the upfront effort making your scientific work flow into scripts. Say you have a machine (or a place on the internet or an email stream if you are working collaboratively) where some raw data spits out. These data need some preliminary messing around with to discard what you don’t want, convert numbers to a proper form, etc. etc. Then, this fixed-up data goes through a series of analyses, possibly several parallel streams of analysis, to produce a set of statistical outputs, tables, graphics, or a new highly transformed data set you send on to someone else.

If this is something you do on a regular basis, and it likely is because your lab or field project is set up to get certain data certain ways, then do certain things to it, then ideally you would set up a script, likely in bash but calling gnu tools like sed or awk, or running Python programs or R programs, and making various intermediate files and final products and stuff. You will want to bother with making the first run of these operations take three times longer to set up, so that all the subsequent runs take one one hundredth of the time to carry out, or can be run unattended.

Nothing, of course, is so simple as I just suggested … you will be changing the scripts and Python programs (and LaTeX specs) frequently, perhaps. Or you might have one big giant complex operation that you only need to run once, but you KNOW it is going to screw up somehow … a value that is entered incorrectly or whatever … so the entire thing you need to do once is actually something you have to do 18 times. So make the whole process a script.

Aside form convenience and efficiency, a script does something else that is vitally important. It documents the process, both for you and others. This alone is probably more important than the convenience part of scripting your science, in many cases.

Being small in a world of largeness

Here is a piece of advice you wont get from anyone else. As you develop your computer working environment, the set of software tools and stuff that you use to run R or Python and all that, you will run into opportunities to install some pretty fancy and sophisticated developments systems that have many cool bells and whistles, but that are really designed for team development of large software projects, and continual maintenance over time of versions of that software as it evolves as a distributed project.

Don’t do that unless you need to. Scientific computing often not that complex or team oriented. Sure, you are working with a team, but probably not a team of a dozen people working on the same set of Python programs. Chances are, much of the code you write is going to be tweaked to be what you need it to be then never change. There are no marketing gurus coming along and asking you to make a different menu system to attract millennials. You are not competing with other products in a market of any sort. You will change your software when your machine breaks and you get a new one, and the new one produces output in a more convenient style than the old one. Or whatever.

In other words, if you are running an enterprise level operation, look into systems like Anaconda. If you are a handful of scientists making and controlling your own workflow, stick with the simple scripts and avoid the snake. The setup and maintenance of an enterprise level system for using R and Python is probably more work before you get your first t-test or histogram than it is worth. This is especially true if you are more or less working on your own.

Culture

Another piece of advice. Some software decisions are based on deeply rooted cultural norms or fetishes that make no sense. I’m an emacs user. This is the most annoying, but also, most powerful, of all text editors. Here is an example of what is annoying about emac. In the late 70s, computer keyboards had a “meta” key (it was actually called that) which is now the alt key. Emacs made use of the metakey. No person has seen or used a metakey since about 1979, but emacs refuses to change its documentation to use the word “alt” for this key. Rather, the documentation says somethin like “here, use the meta key, which on some keyboards is the alt key.” That is a cultural fetish.

Using LaTeX might be a fetish as well. Obliviously. It is possible that for some people, using R is a fetish and they should rethink and switch to using Python for what they are doing. The most dangerous fetish, of course, is using proprietary scientific software because you think only if you pay hundreds of dollars a year to use SPSS or BMD for stats, as opposed to zero dollars a year for R, will your numbers be acceptable. In fact, the reverse is true. Only with an OpenSource stats package can you really be sure how the stats or other values are calculated.

And finally…

And my final piece of advice is to get and use this book: Computing Skills for Biologists: A Toolbox by Allesina and Wilmes.

This book focuses on Python and not R, and covers Latex which, frankly, will not be useful for many. This also means that the regular expression work in the book is not as useful for all applications, as might be the case with a volume like Mastering Regular Expressions. But overall, this volume does a great job of mapping out the landscape of scripting-oriented scientific computing, using excellent examples from biology.

Mastering Regular Expressions can and should be used as a textbook for an advanced high school level course to prep young and upcoming investigators for when they go off and apprentice in labs at the start of their career. It can be used as a textbook in a short seminar in any advanced program to get everyone in a lab on the same page. I suppose it would be treat if Princeton came out with a version for math and physical sciences, or geosciences, but really, this volume can be generalized beyond biology.

Stefano Allesina is a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Chicago and a deputy editor of PLoS Computational Biology. Madlen Wilmes is a data scientist and web developer.

A Guide To Using Command Line Tools

There are a lot of books out there to help you learn command line tools, and of course, they mostly cover the same things because there is a fixed number of things you need to learn to get started down this interesting and powerful path.

Small, Sharp, Software Tools: Harness the Combinatoric Power of Command-Line Tools and Utilities by Brian P. Hogan is the latest iteration (not quite in press yet but any second now) of one such book.

I really like Hogan’s book. Here’s what you need to know about it.

First, and this will only matter to some but is important, the book does cover using CLI tools across platforms (Linux, Mac, Windows) in the sense that it helps get you set up to use the bash command line system on all three.

Second, this book is does a much better than average job as a tutorial, rather than just as a reference manual, than most other books I’ve seen. You can work from start to finish, with zero knowledge at the start, follow the examples (using the provided files that you are guided to download using command line tools!) and become proficient very comfortably and reasonably quickly. The topic are organized in such a way that you can probably skip chapters that interest you less (but don’t skip the first few).

Third, the book does give interesting esoteric details here and there, but the author seems not compelled to obsessively fill your brain with entirely useless knowledge such as how many arguments the POSIX standard hypothetically allows on a command line (is it 512 or 640? No one seems to remember) as some other books do.

I found Small, Sharp, Software Tools a very comfortable, straight forward, well organized, accurate read from Pragmatic.

Serious Python Programming

Julien Danjou’s Serious Python: Black-Belt Advice on Deployment, Scalability, Testing, and More is serious.

This book takes Python programming well beyond casual programming, and beyond the use of Python as a glorified scripting language to access statistical or graphics tools, etc. This is level one or even level two material. If you are writing software to distribute to others, handling time zones, want to optimize code, or experiment with different programming paradigms (i.e. functional programming, generating code, etc.) then you will find Serious Python informative and interesting. Multi-threading, optimization, scaling, methods and decorators, and integration with relational databases are also covered. (A decorator is a function that “decorates,” or changes or expands, a function without motifying i.) The material is carefully and richly explored, and the writing is clear and concise. Continue reading Serious Python Programming

Minecraft Blockopedia

Minecraft is probably the most creative video game out there, not in the sense that its creators are creative, but rather, that it is all about creating things, and this is done by constructing novelty out of a relatively simple set of primitives. But to do so, the player needs to know about the building blocks of Minedraft, such as Lava, Fencing, Redstone, Levers, various chest and chest related things, and so on.

The Blockopedia in use.
Yes, you (or your child) can learn as you go playing the game, watch a few YouTube videos, etc. But if we want to fully enjoy and integrate the Minecraft experience, and help that child (or you?) get in some more reading time, there must be books. For example, the Minecraft: Blockopedia by Alex Wiltshire. Continue reading Minecraft Blockopedia

Time itself as a resource that drives evolution

Many of the key revolutions, or at least, overhauls, in biological thinking have come as a result of the broad realization that a thentofore identified variable is not simply background, but central and causative.

I’m sure everyone always thought, since first recognized, that if genes are important than good genes would be good. Great, even. But it took a while for Amotz Zahavi and some others to insert good genes into Darwin’s sexual selection as the cause of sometimes wild elaboration of traits, not a female aesthetic or mere runaway selection. Continue reading Time itself as a resource that drives evolution

Making Raspberry Pi Robots

At the core of this post is a review of a new book, Learn Robotics with Raspberry Pi: Build and Code Your Own Moving, Sensing, Thinking Robots. I recommend it as a great above-basic level introduction to building a standard robot, learning a bit about the Linux operating system, learning to program in Python, and learning some basic electronics. However, I want to frame this review in a bit more context which I think will chase some readers away from this book while at the same time making others drool. But don’t drool on the electronics. Continue reading Making Raspberry Pi Robots

How to be a hacker

Wikipedia tells us that a “computer hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem.” The all knowing one goes on to note that the term has been linked in popular parlance with the made up Wikipedia word “security hacker.” Such an individuals “uses bugs or exploits to break into computer systems.”

Continue reading How to be a hacker

Violence in the United States Congress

There is probably a rule in the chambers of the United States Congress that you can’t punch a guy. Living rules are clues to past behavior. For instance, where I live now, there is a rule: You can’t leave your hockey goals or giant plastic basketball nets out overnight. There are no appropriate age children for that rule to affect. All the old people who live on my street have to drag those things into the garage at the end of every day, after their long sessions of pickup ball. More likely, years ago, there were kids everywhere and the “Get off my lawn” contingent took over the local board and made all these rules.

So, today, in Congress, you can’t hit a guy, but in the old days, that wasn’t so uncommon.

You have heard about the caning of Charles Sumner. Southern slavery supporter Preston Brooks beat the piss out of Charles Sumner, an anti-slave Senator from Massachusetts. They weren’t even in the same chamber. Brooks was in the House, Sumner was in the Senate. Sumner almost didn’t survive the ruthless and violent beating, which came after a long period of bullying and ridicule by a bunch of southern bullies. Witnesses describe a scene in which Brooks was clearly trying to murder Sumner, and seems to have failed only because the cane he was using broke into too many pieces, depriving the assailant of the necessary leverage. Parts of that cane, by the way, were fashioned into pendants worn by Brook’s allies to celebrate his attempted murder of a Yankee anti-slavery member of Congress.

Here’s the thing. You’ve probably heard that story, or some version of it, because it was a major example of violence in the US Congress. But in truth, there were many other acts of verbal and physical violence carried out among our elected representatives, some even worse, often in the chambers, during the decades leading up to the Civil War. Even a cursory examination of this series of events reveals how fisticuffs, sometimes quite serious, can be a prelude to a bloody fight in which perhaps as many as a million people all told were killed. Indeed, the number of violent events, almost always southerner against northerner, may have been large enough to never allow the two sides, conservative, southern, right wing on one hand vs. progressive, liberal not as southern, on the other, to equalize in their total level of violence against each other. Perhaps there are good people on both sides, but the preponderance of thugs reside on one side only.

Which brings us to this. You hears of the caning of Sumner, but you probably have not read The Field of Blood: Violence in Congress and the Road to Civil War by Yale historian Joanne B. Freeman.

Professor Freeman is one of the hosts of a podcast I consider to be in my top three favorite, Backstory, produced by Virginia Humanities. Joanne is one of the “American History Guys,” along with Ed Ayers (19th century), Brian Balogh (20th Century), Nathan Connolly (Immigration history, Urban history) and emeritus host Peter Onuf (18th century). Freeman writes in her newest book of the first half of the 19th century, but her primary area of interest heretofore is the 18th century, and her prior works have focused, among other things, on Alexander Hamilton: Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic about the nastiness among the founding fathers, and two major collections focused on A.H., The Essential Hamilton: Letters & Other Writings: A Library of America Special Publication and Alexander Hamilton: Writings .

I strongly urge you to have a look at Freeman’s book, in which she brings to light a vast amount of information about utter asshatitude among our elected representatives, based on previously unexplored documents. I also strongly urge you to listen to the podcast. The most recent edition as of this writing is on video games and American History. The previous issue is covers the hosts’ book picks for the year.

We Don’t Need No Stinking Astronauts: The History of Unmanned Space Exploration

Not that astronauts necessarily stink. Well, actually, they probably do after a while, but I suppose one gets used to it.

Anyway, we are all faced, or at least those of us who live in countries that have rocket ships all face, the question of personed vs. un-personed space flight as a way of doing science abroad and related quests. I’m not sure myself what I think about it, but considering the huge cost and difficulty, and the physical limitations, of using humans to run instruments on other planets or in space, and the sheer impossibility of human space missions really far away, the best approach is probably to use a lot of robots. Continue reading We Don’t Need No Stinking Astronauts: The History of Unmanned Space Exploration